Two local standouts have announced they’ll be taking their athletic careers to the next level, including one who has made the decision to stay close to home.On Tuesday, Arcata senior Kaylin Campbell signed a letter of intent to play volleyball at Humboldt State in 2018, following in the footsteps of a handful of local players to join the Jacks program recently.Campbell’s signing comes just days after McKinleyville senior Hannah Hogan signed a letter of intent to play soccer this fall at Lake …
Brickhill was the epitome of glamour for over a decade as the star of a series of Minstrel and Follies Extravaganzas. She went on to enjoy her greatest triumphs as Miss Hannigan in Annie, and in the title roles in Hello Dolly! and Mame. (Image: Facebook.com/brickhill.burke) MEDIA CONTACTS • Alvon Collison The Entertainer +27 21 551 0969 RELATED ARTICLES • South African theatre • Magnet Theatre heads to Italy festival • Innovative theatre for young minds • Extreme entertainment in Joburg • Mda’s Madonna now stage dramaMelissa Jane CookThe stage lights have dimmed with the death of South African theatre doyenne Joan Brickhill, at the age of 89. She passed away in a frail care facility in Johannesburg on Wednesday, 15 January.Brickhill, who first astounded audiences at the age of two, was a consummate all-round performer and professional with skills in an array of disciplines, from costume design to casting, from performance to production. Born in KwaZulu-Natal in 1924, Brickhill was an actress who took her art to radio, theatre, television, and film. Unparalleled in the country, her formidable career spanned over 60 years, and her list of stage and screen performances is astonishingly long. Her passion for the spotlight, applause from the audience and dedicated love for her craft made her one of the most talented and respected South African performers of the twentieth century.The dominant force in musical theatre for over 20 years, Brickhill and her husband, Louis Burke, formed Brickhill-Burke Productions and staged a prolific series of long-running and outstanding productions from the mid-1960s to the 1980s. They produced Meet Me in St Louis on Broadway, Oklahoma!, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Miser, The Dark of the Moon, Rashomon, The Beggar’s Opera, The Minstrel Scandals, and The Owl and the Pussycat, to name a few.Brickhill was the epitome of glamour for over a decade as the star of a series of Minstrel and Follies Extravaganzas. She went on to enjoy her greatest triumphs as Miss Hannigan in Annie, and in the title roles in Hello Dolly! and Mame. The grand theatre productions were staged in His Majesty’s Theatre, in Johannesburg.In 1978, the theatre was financially crippled and was on the verge of closing down. Brickhill and Burke orchestrated a heroic battle but sadly, His Majesty’s was finally closed in 1981, with the couple’s production of Hello Dolly! ending its illustrious career. Brickhill was committed to the sanctity of the theatre space and went beyond the stage to save it. In front of the curtain and behind the scenes she did everything she could to ensure this beautifully ornate establishment remained open.Besides her bold love of the theatre and stage, Brickhill was an avid, passionate campaigner during the devastating scourge of Aids in the 1980s. She was a staunch supporter and patron of SA Artists Fight against Aids and was the first patron of Fight against Aids Campaign.Wanting to pass on her knowledge and love to others, the Brickhill Burke School of Speech and Drama was opened in Durban in the late 1950s. The couple felt uniquely gifted and proud that they were the discoverers and mentors of young talent.After many successful, dramatic years together they divorced; Brickhill returned to Durban, where she taught and directed productions, and Burke left for New York in the mid-1990s.Known as a triple threat – a singing, dancing and acting performer – Brickhill could illuminate the stage and guarantee sold out houses. She was equally as successful as a producer and director, and will always be remembered as that rare phenomenon, the all-round genuine theatre star. She was also an executive entertainment producer at Sun City.ShowsBrickhill’s theatrical performances include: South Pacific (1969), All-New, Non-Stop Minstrel Scandals (1970), Follies Spectacular (1972), Minstrel Follies (1974), Meropa (1974), The Tempest (1975), Gypsy (1975), The Sound of Music (1976), Follies Fantastique (1976), Winnie the Pooh (1977), Annie (1978), I Love My Wife (1978), They’re Playing Our Song (1980), Last of the Red Hot Lovers (1980), Hello Dolly (1980), Bedazzled (1981), I Love My Wife (1982), Mame (1982), A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1984), Brighton Beach Memoirs (1986), Double Act (1988).Brickhill’s first feature film was Nor the Moon by Night in 1958, in which she played Harriet Carver, the lead role. Her next celluloid outing was Follow That Rainbow in 1979. Along with Burke, she directed and presented the first South African play in KwaZulu-Natal to be performed to multi-racial audiences. It later toured the country.Awards and accoladesAs a toddler, the child star gleefully walked away with the “most talented child in the country” award and through the years her honours were many: twice winner of the Best Radio Actress; twice winner of Best Performance in Musical; nominated for a Tony Award on Broadway for her choreography in Meet Me In St Louis; the original musical Meropa – KwaZulu played the Royal Command Performance before Queen Elizabeth II during its long run in London; the University of Tshwane bestowed an honorary doctorate on her; and, she received a Lifetime Achievement Award from South African Theatre Management. There is also a rose named in honour of the actress, a delicate medium yellow hybrid tea called the Joan Brickhill Rose.After a lifetime in the light, the theatre finally went dark this week.
Software giant Adobe has bet big on VR and 360 video with the acquisition of Mettle’s SkyBox VR editing tools.Top image via Shutterstock.Adobe has just announced the acquisition of all SkyBox technology from leading VR tool developer Mettle. The VR tools were originally available from Mettle as plugins for Premiere Pro and After Effects, but this acquisition will enhance the Adobe Creative Cloud by offering the best VR tools natively to all users.Since 2015, the Mettle tools have been the best in creating 360 degree videos. At the most recent NAB, Mettle announced the ability to work with fog, volumetric effect, and depth-based masking in Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects. It looks like those tools will be the first major changes to the Adobe CC.Mettle has also been a leader in the tutorial space, offering hours of instructional content to 360-video creators. You can even download 360 footage to experiment with.In another great move, Adobe will also hire Mettle co-founder Chris Bobotis as a Director of Professional Video. Chris is an incredibly talented developer who brings twenty-five years of production experience to Adobe.Our relationship started with Adobe in 2010 when we created FreeForm for After Effects, and has been evolving ever since. This is the next big step in our partnershipI’ve always believed in developing software for artists, by artists, and I’m looking forward to bringing new technology and integration that will empower creators with the digital tools they need to bring their creative vision to life. — Chris BobotisMettle will soon no longer offer the SkyBox tools as plugins on their site, and we should see the tools natively in one of the upcoming CC updates.As for the move to Adobe, Chris had the following to say:I am honored to be working with the team at Adobe. I look forward to contributing to the team efforts, moving forward with new tools in immersive media.You can read the full Adobe Press Release here.
Zonio also clarified that Pacquiao’s decision to turn down Alvarado as his next foe has nothing to do with a conflict in schedule involving his legislative duties since the Senate is on break from March 23 to May 1. /jpvRELATED STORYArum open to Pacquiao-Matthysse but not in AprilADVERTISEMENT AFP official booed out of forum Families in US enclave in north Mexico hold sad Thanksgiving Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Saulong falls to Japanese champ Iwasa in title fight Pussycat Dolls set for reunion tour after 10-year hiatus LOOK: Iya Villania meets ‘Jumanji: The Next Level’ cast in Mexico Read Next Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university PLAY LIST 01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City MOST READ Manny Pacquiao. Tristan Tamayo / INQUIRER.net file photoForget about Manny Pacquiao going to the United States for his return bout this year.A confidante of the eight-division world champion said Pacquiao is looking at Kuala Lumpur instead, with either April 29 or May 5 as the preferred dates.ADVERTISEMENT Google honors food scientist, banana ketchup inventor and war hero Maria Orosa The opponent has yet to be named, although Pacquiao has earlier declared that he would like to fight World Boxing Association welterweight champion Lucas Matthyse on his comeback drive after losing his World Boxing Organization welterweight crown to Australian Jeff Horn in Brisbane last July 2.READ: Pacquiao wants Matthysse; Arum picks AlvaradoFEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutApparently, Paquiao dismissed the proposition that he fights former world champion Mike Alvarado in the undercard of the Horn-Terence Crawford tussle for the WBO 147-pound title on April 14 at Mandalay Bay in Las Vegas.Pacquiao’s Senate media chief, Aquiles Zonio, said the “fighting senator” felt “insulted” by the decision of Bob Arum, Top Rank Promotions head honcho, to make his comeback fight a mere undercard. View comments
Kansas City’s star safety Eric Berry was carted off with 4:56 remaining with an undisclosed injury.The Patriots lost perhaps their best defensive player, linebacker Dont’a Hightower, in the third quarter with a knee injury. His absence showed on Hunt’s long TD reception. … WR Danny Amendola left in the fourth quarter with a head injury. He’s projected as New England’s slot receiver with Julian Edelman out for the season.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ It was the first time the Patriots lost at Gillette Stadium when leading at halftime, a span of 82 games. The 42 points were the most they have allowed in coach Bill Belichick’s 17-plus seasons.They were no match for the Chiefs in the last two periods.Tyreek Hill scored on a 75-yarder and Hunt put the Chiefs in front with a 78-yarder to punctuate Kansas City’s charge after trailing 17-14 at halftime. Hunt also had a 58-yard scamper and finished with 141 yards rushing and 98 receiving. Hill had 133 yards through the air, and Smith went 28 for 35 for 368 yards and four touchdowns and no interceptions. He’s the first quarterback with 300-plus yards, four TDs and no interceptions against Belichick.Brady, the 13th quarterback to start an NFL game at age 40, didn’t look too spry. He struggled mightily in the second half and didn’t throw for a touchdown, finishing 16 for 36 for 267 yards.Patriots newcomer Mike Gillislee scored on three short runs, becoming the first player since Terrell Owens of Philadelphia in 2004 to score three touchdowns in his debut with a new team.ADVERTISEMENT Sans Fernandez and Bolick, San Beda hammers Mapua for 9th straight Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul And Kansas City aided the Patriots’ cause with 15 penalties for 139 yards. Yet, in the end, the Chiefs looked like world-beaters.At the beginning, it seemed like an extension of February’s Super Bowl. Riled up, Brady and the Patriots tore through the opposing defense as if it belonged to, well, the Falcons, scoring in nine plays, with Gillislee surging in from the 2.One play later, they were at it again as Hunt fumbled. The Patriots took over at the Kansas City 32 and appeared to go up 14-0 on Rob Gronkowski’s diving catch. Then a replay review overturned the score, with NFL headquarters — which now makes final decisions on such reviews — determining the ball hit the ground as Gronk came down in the end zone.Gillislee was stopped on fourth-and-inches at the KC 10 and the Chiefs, looking very much like the host team, marched 90 yards in 12 plays. Hunt made up for his early gaffe by gaining 25 yards on the tying drive, which Smith capped with a sharp 8-yard pass to Demetrius Harris.The teams traded long touchdown drives, New England going 82 yards to Gillislee’s second TD, the Chiefs covering 92 yards at the end of the half before Hunt ran in with a 3-yard swing pass.Stephen Gostkowski’s 25-yard field goal was the margin for New England’s halftime edge.But the crowd’s fervor was silenced with Hill’s long touchdown on which prized free agent addition cornerback Stephon Gilmore was torched. Hunt sped down the middle behind linebacker Kyle Van Noy and DE/LB Cassius Marsh to put Kansas City in front for good.SHORT YARDAGENew England failed twice in the first quarter on short-yardage runs, by Gillislee and Super Bowl hero James White, and again in the fourth period, by Gillislee. If anyone proclaimed the Patriots were missing RB LeGarrette Blount, who scored 18 TDs last season and was a beast in such situations, well, Gillislee, who came from Buffalo as a restricted free agent, ran in for a pair of 2-yard touchdowns and a 1-yarder.ROGER, ROGERNot only did the crowd revel in the video highlights from the Super Bowl, the fans booed vigorously when Commissioner Roger Goodell was shown talking on the sideline Chiefs owner Clark Hunt during warmups. A website distributed thousands of towels featuring Goodell’s face adorned with a clown nose, and many fans also had T-shirts with the caricature. Goodell watched the game from a suite, but not with Patriots owner Robert Kraft.INJURIES Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters LATEST STORIES View comments Kansas City Chiefs running back Kareem Hunt (27) eludes New England Patriots defensive end Cassius Marsh (55) as he runs for a touchdown after catching a pass from Alex Smith during the second half of an NFL football game, Thursday, Sept. 7, 2017, in Foxborough, Mass. (AP Photo/Steven Senne)FOXBOROUGH, Massachusetts — There were big plays all over the field. The Chiefs, not the Patriots, were making them.Alex Smith threw two long touchdown passes and rookie Kareem Hunt, after fumbling on his first NFL carry, scored three times to help Kansas City stun New England 42-27 on Thursday night in the season opener.ADVERTISEMENT Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Hunt set an NFL record for a pro debut since the 1970 merger with 239 total yards.Coming off their sensational Super Bowl rally to a fifth Lombardi Trophy, the Patriots faded badly in the second half. A raucous sold-out crowd of 65,878 celebrated the unveiling of yet another championship banner, and there was plenty of talk about Tom Brady leading them to a 19-0 record.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingAfter Week 1, though, they are winless.“Just a very poor effort and we’ll have to do a lot better,” Brady said. “Didn’t make a lot of plays tonight.” Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side
Battered into submission in the first Test despite Sachin Tendulkar’s batting heroics, world number one India will aim to reclaim their bruised pride and level the series against a rampaging South Africa in the second cricket Test starting in Durban on Sunday.The visitors are smarting from an innings and 25 runs defeat in Centurion, where their famed line-up capitulated so badly in the first innings that it became impossible to salvage the match in the second essay despite Tendulkar’s historic 50th Test ton.In their previous Tests at the ground, India managed a draw in 1992-93 but lost by 328 runs in 1996-97, and by 174 runs in 2006-07.However, going into Sunday’s game, the omens have been good so far with pace spearhead Zaheer Khan, who sat out in Centurion due to a hamstring strain, back to full fitness for the must-win match of the three-Test series.Add to this, South Africa’s not-so-impressive recent record in Kingsmead. Graeme Smith’s men have suffered a couple of massive defeats at the venue in recent times (by 175 runs to Australia in 2008-09 and an innings and 98 runs against England last year).But that would hardly make a difference after the toss of coin on Sunday morning, something that Indian skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni is not that good at.The curator has promised a fair track which would have as much for the bowlers as for the batsmen and that should be music to Indian ears considering that the visiting batsmen seemed to have no clue on how to deal with short-pitched stuff on the Centurion pitch.advertisementThe batting did come good in the second innings of that highly forgettable match for the Indians but the form of a few remains a concern.One among them is Suresh Raina, who has scored 32, 3, 20, 3, 1 and 5 in his last six Test innings, and he could well lose his pace in the side to the young Cheteshwar Pujara.But the big guns such as Gautam Gambhir, Virender Sehwag, Rahul Dravid and Dhoni himself showed they were in good touch at least in the second innings of the Centurion Test.Their contribution would be crucial against the quality pace attack of the South Africans.The tearaway pace duo of Dale Steyn and Morne Morkel decimated the Indian batting in the first innings and though they came in for some hammering in the second innings, they had done their job well enough much earlier to ensure a South African win.The Indians would obviously be bolstered by the return of Zaheer but the ineffectiveness of Ishant Sharma and S Sreesanth would be a worry since the tracks here demand that visiting teams have a good pace attack.”Zaheer is a key player,” said Dhoni, stressing on the pacer’s importance in the squad.”With all the experience he has, he always comes up with new plans and changes his plans during the course of a game,” he added.On the batting front, the South Africans are no less despite the combined experience and accumulated runs of the Indians far exceeding theirs.Graeme Smith, Alviro Petersen, Hashim Amla and Jacques Kallis make for a top-order that any bowling line-up would find difficult to contain and given India’s rather weak attack, it would once again be tough for the visitors to take 20 South African wickets.Their top ranking is not exactly at stake but India’s reputation certainly is and it would take quite an effort to keep that intact against a hostile opponent, which has also kept up the pressure with some bantering off the field.Squads:South Africa: Graeme Smith (capt), Alviro Petersen, Hashim Amla, Jacques Kallis, AB de Villiers, Ashwell Prince, Mark Boucher, Dale Steyn, Paul Harris, Morne Morkel, Lonwabo Tsotsobe, Ryan McLaren, JP Duminy, Wayne Parnell.India: Mahendra Singh Dhoni (capt), Gautam Gambhir, Virender Sehwag, Rahul Dravid, Sachin Tendulkar, VVS Laxman, Suresh Raina, Harbhajan Singh, Zaheer Khan, Ishant Sharma, S Sreesanth, Murali Vijay, Cheteshwar Pujara, Wriddhiman Saha, Umesh Yadav, Jaidev Unadkat, Pragyan Ojha.Umpires: Steve Davis (AUS), Asad Rauf (PAK)TV umpire: Johan Cloete (RSA)Match referee: Andy Pycroft (ZIM).With inputs from PTI
APTN National NewsA Six Nations grandmother is speaking out after a new trial was ordered for a man convicted of killing her pregnant granddaughter.Tashina General was found buried in a shallow grave in Six Nations six months after she went missing. She was four months pregnant.APTN’s Delaney Windigo has this story.
The probability of the South West monsoon this year being ‘Near Normal’ is 39 per cent, ‘Below Normal’ is 32 per cent and ‘Deficient’ is 17 per cent, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) has declared while making its first stage Long Range Forecast (LRF) on April 15, 2019. “The South West seasonal monsoon rainfall (June to September) over the country as a whole is likely to be near normal,” the national weather forecaster said. It also suggested that the probability of there being an ‘above normal’ monsoon is 10 per cent and that of it being ‘excess’ is two per cent. Also Read – A special kind of bondQuantitatively, the seasonal monsoon rainfall (June-September) was likely to be 96 per cent of the Long Period Average (LPA), with a model error of ± 5 per cent, said the IMD. “Overall, the country is expected to have well-distributed rainfall scenario during the 2019 monsoon season, which will be beneficial to farmers in the country during the ensuing Kharif season,” a statement by the IMD read. “Weak El Nino conditions are likely to prevail during the monsoon season with reduced intensity in the later part of the season,” it stated. The forecaster had already declared in a March 29, 2019 press release that “El Nino conditions are likely to persist in the early part of the summer season and likely to weaken thereafter.” Also Read – Insider threat managementEl Nino, which is the unusual warming of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, disrupts global wind patterns affecting climatic conditions in tropical areas like Africa, sub-tropical areas like India as well as the extra-tropical areas like North America. In India, there is a relationship between El Nino events and hotter-than-usual summers along with a decrease in rainfall during the monsoon. Most of the time, these events have also led to drought conditions. In contrast to the IMD, weather agencies in other countries had declared weak El Nino conditions at the beginning of 2019. In January, Japan’s Meteorological Agency, which is also the Asian arm of the World Meteorological Organisation, said El Nino conditions were prevailing and that there was an 80 per cent chance of an El Nino phenomenon staying till spring season of 2019. The Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) of the National Weather Service in the United States of America also concluded, around the same time, that weak El Nino conditions had formed in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In a March 14, 2019 update, the CPC says that “weak El Nino conditions are likely to continue through the Northern Hemisphere spring 2019 with an 80 per cent probability and summer with a 60 per cent probability”. (The views expressed are of Down To Earth)
New Delhi: If you think that you may be under the risk of dementia then start doing regular exercises, eating healthy diets along with staying away from the harmful use of alcohol and smoking as the World Health Organisation (WHO) in its new guidelines on dementia have stated that potential dementia patients can get rid of the disease by maintaining healthy blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels.While releasing the new guidelines on dementia, WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus has said that in the next 30 years, the number of people with dementia is expected to triple. Also Read – 2019 most peaceful festive season for J&K: Jitendra Singh”We need to do everything we can to reduce our risk of dementia. The scientific evidence gathered for these guidelines confirm what we have suspected for some time that what is good for our heart, is also good for our brain,” Ghebreyesus said in an official press statement released by the WHO. The guidelines provide the knowledge base for health-care providers to advise patients on what they can do to help prevent cognitive decline and dementia. As per the WHO press note, the guidelines would also be useful for governments, policy-makers and planning authorities to guide them in developing policy and designing programmes that encourage healthy lifestyles. “The reduction of risk factors for dementia is one of several areas of action included in the WHO’s global action plan for the public health response to dementia,” the WHO said in its release.
Christie Aschwanden’s new book, “Good to Go: What the Athlete in All of Us Can Learn from the Strange Science of Recovery,” is available this week. In it, she examines the latest recovery trends among athletes — including Tom Brady’s infrared pajamas, Sue Bird’s coffee naps and Michael Phelps’s “cupping” ritual. She also tests some of the most controversial methods herself, including cryochambers, float tanks and infrared saunas. Below, we’re publishing an excerpt of the book’s chapter on what science really tells us about what we should drink after we work out. Hydrate Till You DrownExercise scientist and physician Tim Noakes was a believer in the dangers of dehydration until two separate experiences left him questioning what he thought he knew.First, Noakes was involved in a study examining participants in a four-day canoe race. During a particularly rough day, one of the paddlers lost all of his drinking water when it washed overboard as he went through some breakers. Despite having canoed about 50 kilometers without drinking, the paddler’s body temperature hadn’t become elevated, as the dehydration theory would have predicted. “We weighed him, and he’d lost about eight or nine pounds, but his body temperature was normal and I thought, oh my gosh — body weight loss has nothing to do with body temperature,” Noakes says. This was a lightbulb moment, because conventional wisdom held that one of the reasons that dehydration was (supposedly) so dangerous was that it put people at risk for heatstroke, and this finding contradicted that assumption.The canoe study prompted Noakes to reconsider the idea that maintaining full hydration was essential to staving off heatstroke. Then, in 1981, a runner wrote to Noakes describing a strange experience she’d had at that year’s Comrades Marathon — a famous 90-kilometer ultramarathon in South Africa. It was the first time that the event had provided drink stations every mile of the 56-mile course, he says, and the runner wrote to say that she’d begun feeling really strange about three-quarters of the way through the race. Her husband pulled her off the course and delivered her to the medics. The first responders assumed she was dehydrated and gave her two liters of intravenous fluid, after which she lost consciousness. She had a seizure on the way to the emergency room.At the hospital, doctors discovered that her blood sodium concentration was dangerously low. The ultimate diagnosis was a medical condition called “water intoxication” or hyponatremia — too little sodium in the blood. Contrary to what the medical crew at the race had assumed, the runner wasn’t dehydrated— she was overhydrated. She’d drunk so much fluid that her blood sodium had become dangerously diluted. Low blood sodium causes cells in the body to swell, and when it happens in the brain, the results can be deadly.Noakes has built a reputation as a loud contrarian on a variety of issues. He is perhaps most famous for his theories about exercise fatigue and has made a career out of pushing against conventional scientific wisdom, some say to his own detriment.5In 2017, the Health Professions Council of South Africa cleared him of a charge of professional misconduct that had been brought by the Association for Dietetics in South Africa, which had complained about advice he’d given on Twitter telling a mother to feed her baby a low-carb, high-fat diet — an eating plan that’s the subject of his latest crusade. So it’s not surprising that he was one of the first and loudest voices on overhydration (the guy wrote a whole book about it).Yet Noakes is far from alone in worrying that the rush to prevent dehydration may have put exercisers at risk of the far more serious condition of water intoxication. In 1986, a research group published a paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the experience of a medical student and a physician who’d become stuporous and disoriented during an ultramarathon. The men were diagnosed with hyponatremia, and they concluded that they’d developed the condition by drinking too much.There’s never been a case of a runner dying of dehydration on a marathon course, but since 1993, at least five marathoners have died from hyponatremia they developed during a race.6This 2005 Noakes paper describes four deaths, and since then, there’s been at least one more, at the London Marathon in 2007. At the 2002 Boston Marathon, researchers from Harvard Medical School took blood samples from 488 marathoners after the finish. The samples showed that 13 percent of the runners had diagnosable hyponatremia, and three had critical cases of the condition. German researchers similarly took blood samples from more than a thousand finishers of the Ironman European Championship over multiple years and found that 10.6 percent of them had hyponatremia. Most of the instances were mild, but nearly 2 percent of the finishers had severe or critical cases. Although the findings indicate that hyponatremia is still a rare condition, what makes them especially concerning is that the early symptoms of hyponatremia are very easily confused with those of dehydration — weakness, headache, nausea, dizziness and lightheadedness.The problem with this model of hydration is that it overlooks basic physiology.How did hyponatremia become an affliction of athletes? In retrospect, it may come down to an error of shifted priorities. In the wake of Gatorade’s massive success, sports drink makers turned to science to promote their products, and researchers focused on things that were easy to measure — body temperature and sweat losses. Based on an idea that dehydration must be a risk factor for heatstroke, attention moved to replenishing fluid loss.The problem with this model of hydration is that it overlooks basic physiology. It turns out, your body is highly adapted to cope with losing multiple liters of fluid, especially during exercise. When you exercise, you lose fluid and salts through sweat, and that translates into a small change in what’s called your “plasma osmolality” — the concentration of salts and other soluble compounds in your blood. You need enough fluid and electrolytes in your blood for your cells to function properly, and this balance is tightly regulated by a feedback loop, says Kelly Anne Hyndman, a professor of medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and leading expert on kidney physiology.When you sweat, your brain senses the corresponding rise in plasma osmolality and directs the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which prods the kidneys to activate aquaporins, which are like tiny straws that poke into the kidneys to draw water back into the blood. “It’s a pathway to conserve water,” Hyndman says. As your body reabsorbs water, your plasma osmolality returns to normal, your brain senses the change, and it shuts down ADH. This feedback loop is finely tuned to keep plasma osmolality in a safe range. Even a tiny drop in electrolytes will activate this system to keep your fluid balance in check. “People always worry they’re going to be dehydrated when the reality is, it’s much easier to over- hydrate because our bodies are so good at conserving water,” Hyndman says. “Being a little dehydrated is not a bad thing. Our bodies can handle it.”Athletes who develop hyponatremia during exercise usually get there by drinking too much because they’ve been conditioned to think they need to drink beyond thirst, says Tamara Hew- Butler, a professor of exercise science at Oakland University and the lead author of several papers on hyponatremia. Even if you don’t drink anything (which she does not recommend), your blood sodium levels will rise in response to sweat losses, and as a result, your body will shift fluid into the blood to maintain your fluid balance, Hew-Butler says.The same feedback loop that calls in the aquaporins also activates your thirst. “You don’t have to drink above thirst — you’ll be fine!” she says. Just as sleepiness is your body’s way of telling you that it’s time to sleep, thirst is how your body ensures that you seek fluids when you need them. No one tells you to sleep before you’re tired, and unless you’re in a situation where you can’t drink for a prolonged period, there’s no sense in drinking before you feel thirsty either. Your body is a finely tuned machine that that is capable of adapting to changing conditions, and it’s not usually necessary to try to outsmart it.You can also forget those pee charts that look like paint swatches for urine, and ignore anyone who says that yellow pee is a sign that you need to drink more water. If you think about hydration from the standpoint of what’s going on inside your body, it’s easy to see why urine hue isn’t helpful. The color of your pee is essentially just a measure of how concentrated your urine is. If it contains more waste than water, it looks dark, and if it’s mostly water, it’s light or almost clear. But that’s not what’s important. What you really want to know is what’s going on in your blood, and your urine can’t tell you that. Dark pee might mean that you’re running low on fluid, but it could also mean that your kidneys are keeping your plasma osmolality in check by conserving water. Very light or clear urine just means that you’ve drunk more water than your body needs, and that’s not necessarily a good thing, especially right before an athletic event.Because of the way the body adapts to fluid loss, the common advice to drink a lot in advance of a big event like a marathon may actually backfire. If you drink a bunch of excess water leading up to a competition, you prime your body to become less adept at holding on to precious fluids, says Mark Knepper, chief of the Epithelial Systems Biology Laboratory at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. When you’re very hydrated, your body doesn’t need to activate many aquaporins, and over time, it reduces the number in reserve, meaning that you’ll have fewer of these water straws at the ready when you need them.Yet everywhere I look, it seems that people are telling me to drink more water. In his best- selling 2017 book, “The TB12 Method,” New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady presents his magic hydration formula — drink at least one-half of your body weight in ounces of water every day. “At 225 pounds, that means I should be drinking 112 ounces a day, minimum,” he writes. (Brady also contends that “the more hydrated I am, the less likely I am to get sunburned,” a claim disputed by scientists.) If our bodies are so good at adapting to moderate fluid loss and letting us know when we need to drink, why are there still so many messages out there urging us to drink before we feel thirsty?An obvious explanation for this is that most of what we hear about hydration comes from companies and researchers with a vested interest in making it all seem complex and highly scientific. The current guidelines from the ACSM and the National Athletic Trainers’ Association have been updated to warn about hyponatremia, but they still promote the ideas that thirst is a poor indicator of hydration and that more than a 2 percent body weight loss should be avoided. The ACSM, NSCA and NATA all receive funding from sports drink makers, as do some of their members. If staying hydrated were as simple as just drinking to thirst, you wouldn’t need expert advice or scientifically formulated products like Gatorade.From a biological perspective, it’s hard to imagine that the human body is so delicate that it can’t function properly without scientists (or football stars) swooping in with calculators to tell us how to keep it running properly. “You have to trust your body,” Knepper says. Humans have evolved to survive exercising without chugging water or sports drink on some rigid schedule. “You get clues about what you need if you listen to your own body,” he says. “You don’t have to know chemistry to survive.”After examining the science, I can’t help thinking we’ve made hydration unduly complicated. I take my dog running with me most of the time, and I’ve never measured the color of her pee or forced her to drink (as if I could). I make sure she has regular access to water, but she doesn’t always take it. At times, she won’t drink at all during a long run, and on those occasions, she always goes straight to her water dish when we get home and slurps until she’s satisfied. I’ve never had to give her an emergency IV for low fluid levels. If drinking to thirst is good enough for her, it’s probably good enough for me too. CLARA KIRKPATRICK The Limited Science Behind Hydration AdviceSports doctors were also urging athletes to drink. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), a professional organization of sports science experts (which receives financial support from Gatorade), put out a consensus statement in 1996 recommending that “during exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regular intervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replace all the water lost through sweating (i.e., body weight loss), or consume the maximal amount that can be tolerated.” The message coming from experts was that athletes needed to replace the fluids they lost during exercise lest their performance and health suffer.In the wake of all this promotion, sports drinks have become a multimillion-dollar business. But when a team of medical researchers trained in the evaluation of scientific findings had a look at the research underpinning the boom in sports drinks, they reached a startling conclusion. “As it turns out, if you apply evidence-based methods, 40 years of sports drinks research does not seemingly add up to much,” Carl Heneghan and his colleagues at the University of Oxford’s Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine wrote in a 2012 analysis published in the British medical journal BMJ. When Heneghan’s team gathered and examined all of the available evidence on sports drinks (it even consulted sports drink manufacturers to ask them for their supporting studies, though not all complied), they found what amounted to a bunch of preliminary or inconclusive evidence packaged as more definitive proof.The first, almost universal, problem among these studies was that they were too small to produce meaningful results. “Small studies are known to be systematically biased toward the effectiveness of the interventions they are testing,” Heneghan and his colleagues wrote. Out of the 106 studies they analyzed, only one had more than 100 subjects, and the second-largest study used only 53 people. The median sample size? Nine.“Worryingly, most performance tests used to assess sports drinks have never been validated.”Another common shortcoming was that the studies were often designed in a way that almost assured that they’d find a benefit from sports drinks. Deborah Cohen, an investigations editor at the BMJ who was involved in the project and wrote a summary of the findings, recalls a study in which volunteers who fasted overnight were divided into two groups, one whose members were given a sports drink containing water, salts and sugar and another whose members received water. “People who were given the sports drink fared better,” she says. “Well, no shit.” If you haven’t had any food in 12 hours and then you get a bit of sugar, of course you’ll perform better than the people still running on empty. But to say that this means the sports drink is superior to whatever a normal person would consume leading up to or during exercise just isn’t generalizable, she says. “Who starves themselves overnight and then goes to perform some exercise?” And yet the BMJ investigation found that this type of study design is surprisingly common among tests of nutritional products.Some of the dazzling powers that sports drinks display in the studies touted by their makers may be nothing more than the placebo effect. When people volunteer for a study to test a new sports drink, they come to it with an expectation that the product will have some performance benefit. Studies use a placebo group to factor out such effects, but a placebo only controls for these expectations when it’s indistinguishable from the real deal. So it’s telling, Cohen says, that studies using plain water for the control group found that the sports drink had positive effects, while the ones that used taste-matched placebos didn’t.The BMJ analysis also concluded that many of the measures made in these studies may not matter for real-world performance. “Worryingly, most performance tests used to assess sports drinks have never been validated,” Heneghan and his colleagues write, and some of them are known to produce highly variable results that may not be reproducible.Heneghan and his team concluded that claims about sports drinks rely on small studies with comparison groups that favor the products being studied, a lack of rigorous blinding so that participants were likely nudged to perform better while taking in the sports drinks, and measurements of effectiveness that might not be meaningful in real life. Add to that statistical sleights of hand that inflate the benefits of the drinks (for instance, one study increased the benefit of carbohydrate drinks from 3 percent to 33 percent by excluding a segment of the test from the analysis), and sports drinks don’t come out looking so impressive.When Heneghan’s and Cohen’s reports came out, some sports science experts blasted it as unnecessarily rigid, because they set their standards based on the conventions of clinical medicine rather than sports science, where, for instance, small sample sizes are common. Which standards and methods should be used for assessing evidence is an important debate that is gaining attention within the sports science community. In the meantime, the emphasis on hydration has created another problem to address. In the early 1990s, Gatorade ran a television commercial featuring Michael Jordan called “Be Like Mike.” It featured slam dunks by Jordan interspersed with footage of kids shooting hoops and, of course, Jordan and other happy people drinking Gatorade.Stuart Phillips remembers that ad campaign well. As an aspiring athlete, he, too, wanted to be like Mike. “Michael Jordan drank Gatorade, so I drank Gatorade,” Phillips says. Despite guzzling the sports drink, Phillips never did make it to the pros, but instead grew up to become the director of the Centre for Nutrition, Exercise, and Health Research at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. The Jordan ad taught him a lesson about the power of marketing, though: “If you can get an endorsement from an athlete that everybody recognizes, then who needs science?”Scientific facts don’t sell products; stories do. Jordan was already a basketball superstar by the time Gatorade came calling, and the public was eager to experience something of his greatness. Enter Gatorade — Michael Jordan drank it, and young Stuart Phillips could too. To drink Gatorade wasn’t just to mimic a sports hero, it was to imagine a causal relationship — Jordan drank Gatorade and then made all those slam dunks, so the one must have had something to do with the other.Psychologists call such thinking the “illusion of causality,” and it’s so powerful that it has spawned an entire genre of advertising — the celebrity endorsement. No one would care that a pro athlete uses a particular product if it didn’t somehow appear that the item played some role in that star’s success. The Irish have a saying, “An umbrella accompanies the rain but rarely causes it.” The same could be said of product endorsements and athletic greatness. Still, our minds are quick to connect the dots in the wrong direction.The age of the athlete-endorsed sports drink began on a Florida football field in the mid-1960s. Back then, most coaches and athletes didn’t give much thought to fluid replacement during practice or competition. In some instances, athletes were even counseled to avoid drinking close to a workout lest they upset their stomach. But in 1965, a University of Florida football coach came to Dr. Robert Cade and his team of university doctors1There are conflicting accounts of exactly what question sparked the research that led to Gatorade and who it was that asked. An official history published on the Cade Museum for Creativity & Invention’s website says that “Gatorade was the result of an offhand question posed in 1965 by former University of Florida linebacker Dwayne Douglas to Dr. J Robert Cade, a professor of renal medicine. ‘Why don’t football players ever urinate during a game?’” According to a history of Gatorade published on the company’s website in 2017, “In early summer of 1965, a University of Florida assistant coach sat down with a team of university physicians and asked them to determine why so many of his players were being affected by heat and heat related illnesses.” Both sources say that the researchers involved in developing the drink were Dr. Robert Cade, Dr. Dana Shires, Dr. H. James Free and Dr. Alejandro de Quesada. complaining that his players were “wilting” in the heat. (He also wondered why his players never urinated during games.) After some investigation, Cade and his colleagues concluded that two factors were causing the players to fall victim to the heat — they weren’t replenishing the fluids and salts they were sweating out, nor were they restoring the carbohydrates their bodies were burning for fuel.In a stroke of genius, Gatorade turned the drink’s sodium, phosphorus and potassium into “electrolytes,” which is simply the scientific term for molecules that produce ions when dissolved in water.Cade figured that he could solve the problem by helping players replace those lost resources, so he stirred together some sodium, sugar and monopotassium phosphate with water to create a drink soon dubbed Gatorade, after the University of Florida’s nickname: the Gators. Legend has it, the drink turned the struggling Gators football team around. It finished the season with a winning record, and in 1967, the team won the Orange Bowl for the first time in school history. Other teams took notice of the newfangled beverage, and in 1967, Cade and the University of Florida signed an agreement with canned goods company Stokely-Van Camp to produce Gatorade commercially.2This history is outlined in Darren Rovell’s book, “First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat into a Cultural Phenomenon.” Orders for the drink poured in.What followed was a national campaign to sell the public on the idea that exercise caused dehydration, the cure was Gatorade’s specially developed drink, and this tonic was critical for sports performance — it was created by a doctor and tested in studies, after all. One of the brand’s early print advertisements boasted that Gatorade was absorbed 12 times faster than water (a claim walked back in 1970,3According to Darren Rovell’s book, “First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat into a Cultural Phenomenon.”. after Ohio State team doctor Robert J. Murphy challenged it at a meeting of the American Medical Association).In a stroke of genius, Gatorade turned the drink’s sodium, phosphorus and potassium into a special selling point by rebranding these ordinary salts with their scientific name — “electrolytes,” which is simply the scientific term for molecules that produce ions when dissolved in water. Your body maintains some reserves of these vital ions that it can tap into as needed to keep your body’s fluid and salt balance in check. We do lose electrolytes through sweat, but even when you exercise continuously for many hours, you will simply correct any losses via your normal appetite and hunger mechanisms. (You’ve already experienced this if you’ve ever had a hankering for a salty snack.) One small study of cyclists and triathletes found that it didn’t really matter whether they drank plain water, a sports drink or a milk-based beverage after an hour of hard exercise. As long as they drank some liquids along with a meal, they restored their fluid levels just fine.Gatorade may not have been the first to use this term, but they’re the ones that landed electrolytes in the public lexicon. In 1985, the Gatorade Sports Science Institute was founded to promote the study of hydration and nutrition for athletes, research that also happened to make for great marketing. Conveniently, the studies that came from the GSSI could be used to support the product’s claims. A 1990 magazine ad read: “We test Gatorade in laboratories. We test it at major universities, with sports science experts, on sophisticated scientific equipment with names that are longer than this sentence. What does it prove? Gatorade works.”4According to Darren Rovell’s book, “First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat into a Cultural Phenomenon.”Rovell’s book.Early advertisements presented thirst as the problem that Gatorade was designed to solve, but as the GSSI’s research program progressed, the emphasis moved to a more clinical concept of hydration and the notion that thirst was not a good indicator of whether an exerciser was drinking enough. “Unfortunately, there is no clear physiological signal that dehydration is occurring, and most athletes are oblivious to the subtle effects of dehydration (thirst, growing fatigue, irritability, inability to mentally focus, hyperthermia),” wrote GSSI co-founder Bob Murray in one report. Instead, athletes were advised to drink according to scientific formulas. A Gatorade ad that ran in Northwest Runner in 2001 depicted the glistening torso of a runner with the race number 40 pinned to her shorts and the words, “Research shows your body needs at least 40 oz. of fluid every hour or your performance could suffer.” That’s the equivalent of five 8-ounce glasses of liquid, which means that a runner finishing a marathon in a fast three hours would need to drink 15 glasses of fluid along the way. Gulp.Gatorade wasn’t alone in promoting the benefits of drinking before, during and after exercise. Other sports drink manufacturers, such as the drug company GlaxoSmithKline (Lucozade Sport), also pointed to science when marketing its products. Lucozade, for example, established a “sports science academy” to promote its drink. Together, these campaigns fostered the idea that exercise depletes your fluids and electrolytes (which, remember, is just a fancy name for salts) and that special measures are required to make things right again.It was no longer sufficient to simply drink some water and eat a meal after exercising. The idea these marketing campaigns fostered was that physical activity created extraordinary nutritional needs and that these specially formulated beverages were the best way to meet them. This was science speaking. Reprinted from “GOOD TO GO: What the Athlete in All of Us Can Learn from the Strange Science of Recovery” by Christie Aschwanden. Copyright © 2019 by Christie Aschwanden. With permission of the publisher, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved.